[FGN] Benoit B. Mandelbrot, The Fractal Geometry of Nature W. H. Freeman, 1982.

[FT] Benoit B. Mandelbrot, Michael Frame, "The canopy and shortest path of a self-contacting fractal tree," The Mathematical Intelligencer, 21 (1999), 18-27.

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A different approach to these calculations has been taken by Don West. We have not reviewed this page for accuracy, but note its existence for those who may be interested.